Document Type : Original Article


Department of Economics, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.


Purpose: Although the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation has been supported by theoretical justifications from empirical studies, including the EKC curve, it has not yet gained sufficient comprehensiveness and acceptance. Accordingly, in line with the primary purpose of this study, the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation was retrospectively examined in the framework of the EKC hypothesis.
Methodology: This research has been done as an original paper using keyword analysis methods. The statistical sample of the study includes the Web of Science (WOS), Scopus search engine, and Scientific Information Database (SID). About 1340 records were extracted in various formats, such as articles, books, conferences, conferences, abstracts, and notes. Among these, 340 were related to scientific articles, of which 122 were allocated to articles with keywords. Accordingly, these articles were considered for analysis.
Findings: On the one hand, considering the different and contradictory results that have been the result of the work of many researchers in this field, and on the other hand, given that the type of environmental indicators used in all these studies is not a comprehensive indicator for the environmental quality, the obtained results will be invalid. They are not the proper criterion for adopting and implementing appropriate economic-environmental policies.
Originality/Value: Using a composite index that shows all the dimensions related to environmental pollution and is a true representative of environmental quality can provide a more accurate analysis of the EKC hypothesis in future research.


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