نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

گروه اقتصاد، واحد تنکابن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تنکابن، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: اگرچه رابطه بین رشد اقتصادی و تخریب محیط زیست به واسطه توجیحات نظری حاصله از مطالعات تجربی انجام شده از جمله منحنی EKC، مورد حمایت قرار گرفته است، ولی هنوز جامعیت و مقبولیت کافی بدست نیاورده است. بر­همین اساس، در راستای هدف اصلی این مطالعه، رابطه بین رشد اقتصادی و تخریب محیط زیست به صورت گذشته‌نگر در قالب فرضیه منحنی محیط زیستی کوزنتس و انواع شاخص­‌های محیط زیستی مورد بررسی قرار می‌­گیرد.
روش‌شناسی پژوهش: این تحقیق به صورت پژوهشی و با استفاده از روش‌­های تحلیل واژگان کلیدی انجام شده است. جامعه این پژوهش را کلیه مقالات علمی (پژوهشی و مروری) در پایگاه­‌های وب آو ساینس (WOS)، اسکوپوس (Scopous) و نشریات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی (SID) تشکیل می‌­دهد. در مجموع تعداد 1340 رکورد در قالب­‌های مختلفی نظیر مقالات، کتاب­‌ها، همایش، کنفرانس­‌ها، چکیده و یادداشت‌ها استخراج شد. در این میان به تعداد 340 رکورد مربوط به مقالات علمی (پژوهشی و مروری) بوده است که از این تعداد 122 رکورد را مقالات دارای واژگان کلیدی به خود اختصاص داده‌اند. بر همین اساس، این مقالات جهت تجزیه و تحلیل در نظر گرفته شدند.
یافته‌ها: با توجه به نتایج متفاوت و متضادی که حاصل کار بسیاری از محققین در این زمینه بوده است و با توجه به این که نوع شاخص‌های محیط­زیستی بکار برده شده در همه این مطالعات، نماینده و شاخصی کامل و جامع برای متغیر کیفیت محیط زیست نمی‌باشد، نتایج بدست آمده نامعتبر بوده و نمی‌­توانند معیار و ملاک درستی برای اتخاذ و اجرای سیاست‌­های مناسب اقتصادی- محیط­زیستی باشند.
اصالت/ارزش افزوده علمی: بکارگیری یک شاخص ترکیبی که بتواند همه ابعاد مربوط به آلودگی محیط زیست را بیان کند و نماینده درستی برای کیفیت محیط زیست در حوزه مورد بررسی باشد، می­تواند تحلیلی درست و دقیق‌­تری را در بررسی منحنی محیط زیستی کوزنتس در تحقیقات آتی ارائه دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analytical Insights on the Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Degradation in Framework of EKC Hypothesis and Various Environmental Indicators

نویسنده [English]

  • Hossein Ali Fakher

Department of Economics, Tonekabon Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon, Iran.

چکیده [English]

Purpose: Although the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation has been supported by theoretical justifications from empirical studies, including the EKC curve, it has not yet gained sufficient comprehensiveness and acceptance. Accordingly, in line with the main purpose of this study, the relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation was retrospectively examined in the framework of EKC hypothesis.
Methodology: This research has been done as an original paper using keyword analysis methods. The statistical sample of the research includes Web of Science (WOS), Scopus search engine and Scientific Information Database (SID). About 1340 records were extracted in various formats such as articles, books, conferences, conferences, abstracts, and notes. Among these, 340 records were related to scientific articles, of which 122 records were allocated to articles with keywords. Accordingly, these articles were considered for analysis.
Findings: On one hand, considering the different and contradictory results that have been the result of the work of many researchers in this field, and on the other hand, given that the type of environmental indicators used in all these studies is not a comprehensive indicator for the environmental quality, the obtained results will be invalid and cannot be the right criterion for adopting and implementing appropriate economic-environmental policies.
Originality/Value: Using a composite index showing all the dimensions related to environmental pollution and to be a true representative of environmental quality, can provide a more accurate analysis of the EKC hypothesis in future researches.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Economic Growth
  • environmental degradation
  • EKC hypothesis
Ahmed, Z., Wang, Z., Mahmood, F., Hafeez, M., & Ali, N. (2019). Does globalization increase the ecological footprint? Empirical evidence from Malaysia. Environmental science and pollution research26(18), 18565-18582.
Allard, A., Takman, J., Uddin, G. S., & Ahmed, A. (2018). The N-shaped environmental Kuznets curve: an empirical evaluation using a panel quantile regression approach. Environmental science and pollution research25(6), 5848-5861.
Al-mulali, U., Weng-Wai, Ch., Sheau-Ting, L., & Mohammed, AH. (2015). Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis by utilizing the ecological footprint as an indicator of environmental degradation. Ecological indicators, 48, 315-323.
Altıntaş, H., & Kassouri, Y. (2020). Is the environmental Kuznets Curve in Europe related to the per-capita ecological footprint or CO2 emissions?. Ecological indicators113, 106-187.
Anwar, A., Siddique, M., Dogan, E., & Sharif, A. (2021). The moderating role of renewable and non-renewable energy in environment-income nexus for ASEAN countries: evidence from method of moments quantile regression. Renewable energy164, 956-967.
Aşıcı, A. A. (2013). Economic growth and its impact on environment: a panel data analysis. Ecological indicators24, 324-333.
Aydin, C., Esen, Ö., & Aydin, R. (2019). Is the ecological footprint related to the Kuznets curve a real process or rationalizing the ecological consequences of the affluence? evidence from PSTR approach. Ecological indicators98, 543-555.
Azam, M., Alam, M. M., & Hafeez, M. H. (2018). Effect of tourism on environmental pollution: further evidence from Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Journal of cleaner production190, 330-338.
Baek, J. (2015). Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions: the case of Arctic countries. Energy economics50, 13-17.
Balsalobre-Lorente, D., Shahbaz, M., Roubaud, D., & Farhani, S. (2018). How economic growth, renewable electricity and natural resources contribute to CO2 emissions?. Energy policy113, 356-367.
Begum, R. A., Sohag, K., Abdullah, S. M. S., & Jaafar, M. (2015). CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews41, 594-601.
Behboudi, D., Bagher Beheshti, M., & Mousavi, S. (2011). Human development and sustainable development in selected oil exporting countries. Journal of science and development, 17(33), 271-293. (InPersian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=153345
Bello, M. O., Solarin, S. A., & Yen, Y. Y. (2018). The impact of electricity consumption on CO2 emission, carbon footprint, water footprint and ecological footprint: the role of hydropower in an emerging economy. Journal of environmental management219, 218-230.
Bulut, U. (2019). Testing environmental Kuznets curve for the USA under a regime shift: the role of renewable energy. Environmental science and pollution research26(14), 14562-14569.
Chang, C. P., & Hao, Y. (2017). Environmental performance, corruption and economic growth: global evidence using a new data set. Applied economics49(5), 498-514.
Charfeddine, L. (2017). The impact of energy consumption and economic development on ecological footprint and CO2 emissions: evidence from a Markov switching equilibrium correction model. Energy economics65, 355-374.
Charfeddine, L., & Mrabet, Z. (2017). The impact of economic development and social-political factors on ecological footprint: A panel data analysis for 15 MENA countries. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews76, 138-154.
Chen, J., Li, Z., Song, M., & Dong, Y. (2020). Decomposing the global carbon balance pressure index: evidence from 77 countries. Environmental science and pollution research, 28, 7016–7031.
Chen, S., Saud, S., Saleem, N., & Bari, M. W. (2019). Nexus between financial development, energy consumption, income level, and ecological footprint in CEE countries: do human capital and biocapacity matter?. Environmental science and pollution research26(31), 31856-31872.
Chu, L. K. (2020). Economic structure and environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: new evidence from economic complexity. Applied economics letters, 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/13504851.2020.1767280
Culas, R. J. (2012). REDD and forest transition: tunneling through the environmental Kuznets curve. Ecological economics79, 44-51.
Daheshvar, T., Danehkar, A., Monavari, M., Riazi, B., & kheyrkhah Zarkesh, M. (2014). Analysis of coastal environment vulnerability determination methods. Human and environment, 12(28), 41-62. (InPersian). URL: http://he.srbiau.ac.ir/article_6315.html?lang=en
Dai, X., Gao, Y., He, X., Liu, T., Jiang, B., Shao, H., & Yao, Y. (2020). Spatial-temporal pattern evolution and driving force analysis of ecological environment vulnerability in Panzhihua city. Environmental science and pollution research, 28, 7151–7166.
Destek, M. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2019). Investigation of environmental Kuznets curve for ecological footprint: the role of energy and financial development. Science of the total environment, 650, 2483–2489.
Destek, M. A., Ulucak, R., & Dogan, E. (2018). Analyzing the environmental Kuznets curve for the EU countries: the role of ecological footprint. Environmental science and pollution research25(29), 29387-29396.
Dogan, E., Ulucak, R., Kocak, E., & Isik, C. (2020). The use of ecological footprint in estimating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for BRICST by considering cross-section dependence and heterogeneity. Science of the total environment723, 138-163.
Dogru, T., Bulut, U., Kocak, E., Isik, C., Suess, C., & Sirakaya-Turk, E. (2020). The nexus between tourism, economic growth, renewable energy consumption, and carbon dioxide emissions: contemporary evidence from OECD countries. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40930-40948.
Ehigiamusoe, K. U., Lean, H. H., & Smyth, R. (2020). The moderating role of energy consumption in the carbon emissions-income nexus in middle-income countries. Applied energy261, 114215.
Elsalih, O., Sertoglu, K., & Besim, M. (2020). Environmental performance, comparative advantage of crude oil and the role of institutional quality. Environmental science and pollution research27(3), 3489-3496.
Fakher, H. A. (2019). Investigating the determinant factors of environmental quality (based on ecological carbon footprint index). Environmental science and pollution research26(10), 10276-10291.
Fakher, H. A., Abedi, Z., & Shaygani, B. (2018). Investigating the relationship between trade and financial openness with ecological footprint. Economic modeling11(40), 49-67.
Fakher, H. A., Abedi, Z., Ahmadian, M., & Shaygani, B. (2018). Comparative examine the impact of financial development (based on money market and capital market) in the intensity of economic growth effects on the environmental performance. Environmental researches9(17), 133-146.
Fakher, H. A., Ahmadian, M., Abedi, Z., & Shaygani, B. (2018). Bayesian econometrics approach in determining of effecting factors on pollution in developing countries (based on environmental performance index). Pollution4(3), 447-457.
Fallahi, F., Porebadallahan, M., Sadeghi, S.K., & Shokri, T. (2020). Economic growth and environment quality: New evidence using continuous wavelet. Quarterly journal of economic growth and development research, Article in Press. (In Persian). https://doi.org/10.30473/egdr.2020.49586.5499
Fodha, M., & Zaghdoud, O. (2010). Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: an empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve. Energy policy38(2), 1150-1156.
Friedl, B., & Getzner, M. (2003). Determinants of CO2 emissions in a small open economy. Ecological economics45(1), 133-148.
Ganda, F. (2019). The environmental impacts of financial development in OECD countries: a panel GMM approach. Environmental science and pollution research26(7), 6758-6772.
Gnègnè, Y. (2009). Adjusted net saving and welfare change. Ecological Economics, 68, 1127–1139.
Godil, D. I., Sharif, A., Rafique, S., & Jermsittiparsert, K. (2020). The asymmetric effect of tourism, financial development, and globalization on ecological footprint in Turkey. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40109-40120.
Gormus, S., & Aydin, M. (2020). Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis using innovation: new evidence from the top 10 innovative economies. Environmental science and pollution research27, 27904-27913.
Grossman, G. M., & Krueger, A. B. (1991). Environmental impacts of a north American free trade agreement. National bureau of economic research, 39(14), 1-57.
Grossman, G. M., & Krueger, A. B. (1995). Economic growth and the environment. The quarterly journal of economics110(2), 353-377.
Hao, L. N., Umar, M., Khan, Z., & Ali, W. (2021). Green growth and low carbon emission in G7 countries: how critical the network of environmental taxes, renewable energy and human capital is?. Science of the total environment752, 141-153.
Hao, Y., Liu, Y., Weng, J. H., & Gao, Y. (2016). Does the environmental Kuznets curve for coal consumption in China exist? new evidence from spatial econometric analysis. Energy114, 1214-1223.
Hassan, S. T., Xia, E., Khan, N. H., & Shah, S. M. A. (2019). Economic growth, natural resources, and ecological footprints: evidence from Pakistan. Environmental science and pollution research26(3), 2929-2938.
Heidari, A., Khazaeipour, A., & Alizadeh, M. (2019). Evaluation of municipal solid waste management methods in Mashhad city using ecological footprint. Journal of environmental science and technology, Articles in Press. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22034/jest.2019.26257.3522
Hess, P. (2010). Determinants of the adjusted net saving rate in developing economies. International review of applied economics24(5), 591-608.
Ho, H. C., Wong, M. S., Man, H. Y., Shi, Y., & Abbas, S. (2019). Neighborhood-based subjective environmental vulnerability index for community health assessment: development, validation and evaluation. Science of the total environment654, 1082-1090.
Hosseini, S., nader khani, Z., & yazdan bakhsh, B. (2017). Evaluation of the environmental sustainability of Ahwaz with an emphasis on air pollution (Using FPPSI method). Journal of natural environment, 70(2), 309-317. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22059/jne.2017.201026.1112
Hosseinzadeh, S. R., Khosrobeigi, R., Istgalday, M., & Shams, A. R. (2011). An assessment of environmental sustainability in urban areas using multi-criteria decision-making method-linear assignment (case study: city of Bandar Turkman). Journal of geographical landscape, 6(16), 8-11.
Ike, G. N., Usman, O., Alola, A. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2020). Environmental quality effects of income, energy prices and trade: The role of renewable energy consumption in G-7 countries. Science of the total environment721, 137-150.
Kargar dehbidi, N., & Bakhshoodeh, M. (2019). Comparison of the Fossil and renewable energies impact on carbon dioxide emissions in OPEC and Asian countries without oil reserves. Environmental researches, 10(19), 313-326. (InPersian). URL: http://www.iraneiap.ir/article_102365.html
Khan, I., Hou, F., & Le, H. P. (2021). The impact of natural resources, energy consumption, and population growth on environmental quality: fresh evidence from the United States of America. Science of the total environment754, 142-222.
Khan, M. K., Teng, J. Z., Khan, M. I., & Khan, M. O. (2019). Impact of globalization, economic factors and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in Pakistan. Science of the total environment688, 424-436.
Khan, S. A. R., Zaman, K., & Zhang, Y. (2016). The relationship between energy-resource depletion, climate change, health resources and the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from the panel of selected developed countries. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews62, 468-477.
Kirikkaleli, D. (2020). New insights into an old issue: exploring the nexus between economic growth and CO 2 emissions in China. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40777-40786.
Kirikkaleli, D., & Kalmaz, D. B. (2020). Testing the moderating role of urbanization on the environmental Kuznets curve: empirical evidence from an emerging market. Environmental science and pollution research27(30), 38169-38180.
Koc, S., & Bulus, G. C. (2020). Testing validity of the EKC hypothesis in south Korea: role of renewable energy and trade openness. Environmental science and pollution research27(23), 29043-29054.
Koçak, E., & Şarkgüneşi, A. (2018). The impact of foreign direct investment on CO 2 emissions in Turkey: new evidence from cointegration and bootstrap causality analysis. Environmental science and pollution research25(1), 790-804.
Kongbuamai, N., Zafar, M. W., Zaidi, S. A. H., & Liu, Y. (2020). Determinants of the ecological footprint in Thailand: the influences of tourism, trade openness, and population density. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40171-40186.
Lee, Y. J., & Lin, S. Y. (2020). Vulnerability and ecological footprint: a comparison between urban Taipei and rural Yunlin, Taiwan. Environmental science and pollution research27(28), 34624-34637.
Liddle, B. (2015). What are the carbon emissions elasticities for income and population? Bridging STIRPAT and EKC via robust heterogeneous panel estimates. Global environmental change31, 62-73.
Liu, X., Zhang, S., & Bae, J. (2017). The impact of renewable energy and agriculture on carbon dioxide emissions: investigating the environmental Kuznets curve in four selected ASEAN countries. Journal of cleaner production164, 1239-1247.
Long, X., & Ji, X. (2019). Economic growth quality, environmental sustainability, and social welfare in China-provincial assessment based on genuine progress indicator (GPI). Ecological economics159, 157-176.
Masoudi, N., dahmardeh, N., & Esfandiyari, M. (2020). Impact of renewable energies, technical innovations and economic growth on carbon dioxide emissions. Quarterly journal of economic growth and development research, 10(40), 54-35. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.30473/egdr.2019.48361.5367
Mazzanti, M., Montini, A., & Zoboli, R. (2008). Environmental Kuznets curves for air pollutant emissions in Italy: evidence from environmental accounts (NAMEA) panel data. Economic systems research20(3), 277-301.
Mirzaei, A., Esfanjari Kenari, R., Mahmoodi, A., & Shabanzadeh, M. (2016). Shadow economy and its role in control of environmental damages of MENA countries. Quarterly journal of economic growth and development research, 6(24), 107-118. (InPersian). URL: http://egdr.journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_2585.html
Molaei, M., & Ehsan, B. (2016). Investigating relationship between gross domestic product and ecological footprint as an environmental degradation index. Journal of economic research (tahghighat-e-eghtesadi), 50(4), 1017-1033. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22059/jte.2015.56156
Moosavi, M. (2018). Evaluation of sustainable development level of Tabriz based on ecological footprint index. Geography and environmental studies, 7(27), 61-76. (InPersian).  URL: http://ges.iaun.ac.ir/article_627420.html?lang=fa
Mrabet, Z., & Alsamara, M. (2017). Testing the Kuznets curve hypothesis for Qatar: a comparison between carbon dioxide and ecological footprint. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews70, 1366-1375.
Murshed, M., Haseeb, M., & Alam, M. S. (2021). The environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for carbon and ecological footprints in south Asia: the role of renewable energy. Geo Journal, 2, 1-28.
Naghibi, M., & Tanhai Deilamghani, M. (2015). The impact of adjusted net savings on equality of social welfare in selected developing countries and the middle east. Fourth national conference and second international conference on accounting and management, 2, 1-20. (InPersian). URL: https://civilica.com/doc/428116/
Naqvi, S. A. A., Shah, S. A. R., Anwar, S., & Raza, H. (2020). Renewable energy, economic development, and ecological footprint nexus: fresh evidence of renewable energy environment Kuznets curve (RKC) from income groups. Environmental science and pollution research, 28, 2031–2051.
Naradda Gamage, S. K., Hewa Kuruppuge, R., & Haq, I. U. (2017). Energy consumption, tourism development, and environmental degradation in Sri Lanka. Energy sources, part B: economics, planning, and policy12(10), 910-916.
Nathaniel, S. P. (2020). Ecological footprint, energy use, trade, and urbanization linkage in Indonesia. Geo journal, 1-14.
Nathaniel, S., Anyanwu, O., & Shah, M. (2020). Renewable energy, urbanization, and ecological footprint in the middle east and north Africa region. Environmental science and pollution research, 27, 14601–14613.
Neagu, O., Ardelean, D. I., & Lazăr, V. (2017). How is environmental performance associated with economic growth? a world cross-country analysis. Studia universitatis „vasile goldis” arad–economics series27(3), 15-32.
Olafsson, S., Cook, D., Davidsdottir, B., & Johannsdottir, L. (2014). Measuring countries׳ environmental sustainability performance–a review and case study of Iceland. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews39, 934-948.
Onafowora, O. A., & Owoye, O. (2014). Bounds testing approach to analysis of the environment Kuznets curve hypothesis. Energy economics44, 47-62.
Ozcan, B. (2013). The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in middle east countries: a panel data analysis. Energy policy62, 1138-1147.
Ozcan, B., Tzeremes, P. G., & Tzeremes, N. G. (2020). Energy consumption, economic growth and environmental degradation in OECD countries. Economic modelling84, 203-213.
Ozcan, B., Tzeremes, P., & Dogan, E. (2019). Re-estimating the interconnectedness between the demand of energy consumption, income, and sustainability indices. Environmental science and pollution research26(26), 26500-26516.
Özokcu, S., & Özdemir, Ö. (2017). Economic growth, energy, and environmental Kuznets curve. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews72, 639-647.
Ozturk, I., & Al-Mulali, U. (2015). Investigating the validity of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Cambodia. Ecological indicators57, 324-330.
Pablo-Romero Gil-Delgado, M. D. P., & Sánchez Braza, A. (2017). Residential energy environmental Kuznets curve in the EU-28. Energy, 125, 44-54.
Pablo-Romero, M. D. P., & Sánchez-Braza, A. (2017). The changing of the relationships between carbon footprints and final demand: panel data evidence for 40 major countries. Energy economics61, 8-20.
Pal, D., & Mitra, S. K. (2017). The environmental Kuznets curve for carbon dioxide in India and China: growth and pollution at crossroad. Journal of policy modeling39(2), 371-385.
Panayotou, T. (1993). Empirical tests and policy analysis of environmental degradation at different stages of economic development. International Labour Organization.
Pata, U. K. (2020). Renewable and non-renewable energy consumption, economic complexity, CO 2 emissions, and ecological footprint in the USA: testing the EKC hypothesis with a structural break. Environmental science and pollution research, 2, 1-16.
Rahman, M. M., & Vu, X. B. (2020). The nexus between renewable energy, economic growth, trade, urbanisation and environmental quality: a comparative study for Australia and Canada. Renewable energy155, 617-627.
Rana, R., & Sharma, M. (2019). Dynamic causality testing for EKC hypothesis, pollution haven hypothesis and international trade in India. The journal of international trade & economic development28(3), 348-364.
Rasoolizadeh, M., & ziaee, S. (2019). Investigating the factors affecting CO 2 emissions in selected OECD countries using panel data model. Journal of natural environment, 72(3), 339-352. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22059/jne.2019.273964.1621
Sabir, S., & Gorus, M. S. (2019). The impact of globalization on ecological footprint: empirical evidence from the south Asian countries. Environmental science and pollution research26(32), 33387-33398.
Salahuddin, M., & Gow, J. (2019). Effects of energy consumption and economic growth on environmental quality: evidence from Qatar. Environmental science and pollution research26(18), 18124-18142.
Sarkodie, S. A. (2018). The invisible hand and EKC hypothesis: what are the drivers of environmental degradation and pollution in Africa?. Environmental science and pollution research25(22), 21993-22022.
Sghaier, A., Guizani, A., Jabeur, S. B., & Nurunnabi, M. (2019). Tourism development, energy consumption and environmental quality in Tunisia, Egypt and Morocco: a trivariate analysis. Geo journal84(3), 593-609.
Shafik, N., & Bandyopadhyay, S. (1992). Economic growth and environmental quality: time-series and cross-country evidence. World Bank Publications.
Shah, S. A. R., Naqvi, S. A. A., & Anwar, S. (2020). Exploring the linkage among energy intensity, carbon emission and urbanization in Pakistan: fresh evidence from ecological modernization and environment transition theories. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40907-40929.
Shahabadi, A., Samari, H., & Nemati, M. (2017). The factors affecting environmental performance index (EPI) in selected OPEC countries. Iranian economic review21(3), 457-467.
Shahbaz, M. (2019). Globalization–emissions nexus: testing the EKC hypothesis in Next-11 countries. Global business review, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1177/0972150919858490
Shahbaz, M., Solarin, S. A., Hammoudeh, S., & Shahzad, S. J. H. (2017). Bounds testing approach to analyzing the environment Kuznets curve hypothesis with structural beaks: the role of biomass energy consumption in the United States. Energy economics68, 548-565.
Sharif, A., Baris-Tuzemen, O., Uzuner, G., Ozturk, I., & Sinha, A. (2020). Revisiting the role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on Turkey’s ecological footprint: evidence from quantile ARDL approach. Sustainable cities and society57, 102-138.
Sharifzadegan, M., & Fathi, H. (2005). Environmental vulnerability strategies policies related to development projects in Alborz environmental areas. Environmental sciences, 10, 1-20. (InPersian). URL:  http://envs.sbu.ac.ir/article_97057.html?lang=fa
Sinha, A., & Bhattacharya, J. (2017). Estimation of environmental Kuznets curve for SO2 emission: a case of Indian cities. Ecological indicators72, 881-894.
Tao, S., Zheng, T., & Lianjun, T. (2008). An empirical test of the environmental Kuznets curve in China: a panel cointegration approach. China economic review19(3), 381-392.
Tarazkar, M.H., & Fathi, F. (2019). Effect of trade liberalization on greenhouse gas emission in Iran: application of nonlinear asymmetric cointegration approach. Journal of natural environment, 72(1), 85-96. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22059/jne.2019.253552.1490
Tarazkar, M.H., & kargar Dehbidi, N. (2019). The impact of elderly population, economic growth, energy consumption and urbanization on CO2 emissions in the middle east: application of panel cointegration approach. Environmental researches, 9(18), 37-48. (InPersian). URL: http://www.iraneiap.ir/article_89098.html?lang=en
Tarazkar, M.H., Kargar, N., Esfanjari, R., & Ghorbaniyan, E. (2020). The impact of economic growth on environmental degradation in Middle East region: application of ecological footprint. Journal of natural environment, 73(1), 77-90. (InPersian). URL: https://doi.org/10.22059/jne.2020.261850.1541
Ulucak, R., & Bilgili, F. (2018). A reinvestigation of EKC model by ecological footprint measurement for high-, middle- and low-income countries. Journal of cleaner production188, 144-157.
Usman, O., Alola, A. A., & Sarkodie, S. A. (2020). Assessment of the role of renewable energy consumption and trade policy on environmental degradation using innovation accounting: evidence from the US. Renewable energy150, 266-277.
Wang, Z. (2019). Does biomass energy consumption help to control environmental pollution? evidence from BRICS countries. Science of the total environment670, 1075-1083.
Yilanci, V., & Ozgur, O. (2019). Testing the environmental Kuznets curve for G7 countries: evidence from a bootstrap panel causality test in rolling windows. Environmental science and pollution research26(24), 24795-24805.
Yılmaz, F. (2020). Is there a waste Kuznets curve for OECD? some evidence from panel analysis. Environmental science and pollution research27(32), 40331-40345.
Yusuf, A. M., Abubakar, A. B., & Mamman, S. O. (2020). Relationship between greenhouse gas emission, energy consumption, and economic growth: evidence from some selected oil-producing African countries. Environmental science and pollution research, 2, 1-9.
Zhang, Y. J., Jin, Y. L., Chevallier, J., & Shen, B. (2016). The effect of corruption on carbon dioxide emissions in APEC countries: a panel quantile regression analysis. Technological forecasting and social change112, 220-227.
Zhao, Y., Wang, S., & Zhou, C. (2016). Understanding the relation between urbanization and the eco-environment in China's Yangtze River Delta using an improved EKC model and coupling analysis. Science of the total environment571, 862-875.