نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه ریاضی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد سمنان، سمنان، ایران.

2 گروه مدیریت، واحد سمنان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سمنان، ایران.

چکیده

هدف: هدف این پژوهش، تعیین جامع شاخص‌­های ارزیابی عملکرد در جهت ارتقا سیستم ارزیابی عملکرد کارکنان با بهره­‌گیری از یک مدل جدید تحلیل پوششی داده بر پایه ارزیابی 360 درجه جهت رتبه­‌بندی کارکنان بود.
روش‌شناسی پژوهش: در این پژوهش، ابتدا شاخص‌­های ارزیابی عملکرد کارکنان با مطالعه پیشینه تحقیق مشخص گردید. پرسش‏نامه‌های طراحی­شده بر اساس نظرات بیست و پنج کارکنان سازمان، سه مدیر بالادستی، ده نفر از اساتید باسابقه دانشگاه و ده نفر از دانشجویان فعال و منتخب دانشگاه (جمعاً به تعداد 48 نفر و در یک ساختار 360 درجه) تکمیل و سپس با استفاده از مدل جدید تحلیل ­پوششی ­داده‌­های طراحی شده، رتبه‌­بندی کارکنان، انجام پذیرفت. دوازده شاخص ارزیابی عملکرد استخراجی از پیشینه پژوهش توسط خبرگان در چهار دسته با عناوین نظام جبران خدمات در دسته اول؛ امنیت شغلی، عدالت سازمانی ادراک‌شده، حمایت سازمانی ادراک‌شده و شرایط فیزیکی کار در دسته دوم؛ ویژگی­‌های شغل، وضوح شغل و توانایی کارکنان در دسته سوم و بازخورد کاری، استرس کاری، رفتار شهروند سازمانی و انگیزش در دسته چهارم رتبه‌­بندی و مستندسازی شد و با بهره‌­گیری از یک مدل بهینه‌­سازی خطی بر اساس روش برنامه‌­ریزی ­آرمانی و سیاست تحلیل­ پوششی ­داده‌­ها منجر به یک رتبه‌­بندی کامل برای کارکنان یک واحد دانشگاهی با 25 نفر کارکنان گردید.
یافتهها: تفسیر و تحلیل نتایج ساخت­‌یافته حاصل از بهره­‌گیری سیاست تحلیل پوششی داده‌ها بر پایه ارزیابی 360درجه می‌­تواند مبنایی برای بهسازی منابع انسانی و استمرار ارزیابی دوره­ای جهت بهبود مستمر عملکرد کارکنان در سازمان قرار گیرد.
اصالت/ارزش‌افزوده علمی: پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از شاخص‌های مختلف به‌صورت جامع و همچنین رویکرد 360 درجه و با توجه به چالش‌های بیرونی و درونی سازمان می‌تواند به ارزیابی‌ها آن‌ها کمک کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Employee Performance Evaluation Using A New Preferential Voting Process

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Soltanifar 1
  • Seyed Abdullah Heidariyeh 2

1 Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Semnan, Iran.

2 Department of Management, Islamic Azad University, Semnan Branch, Semnan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the comprehensive performance evaluation criteria to improve the performance evaluation system of employees using a new model of data envelopment analysis based on 360-degree evaluation for employee ranking.
Methodology: In this study, first, performance evaluation criteria were identified by studying the research background. Questionnaires designed based on the opinions of twenty-five staff of the organization, three senior managers, ten professors with university experience and ten active and selected students of the university (a total of 48 people in a 360-degree structure) are completed and then using A new model of designed data envelopment analysis, employee ranking, was performed. Twelve performance evaluation indicators extracted from the research background by experts in four categories with the titles of service compensation system in the first category; Job security, perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and physical working conditions in the second category; Job characteristics, job clarity and ability of employees in the third category and job feedback, job stress, organizational citizen behavior and motivation in the fourth category were ranked and documented using a linear optimization model based on the goal programming and policy. Data envelopment analysis resulted in a complete ranking for the staff of a university unit with 25 staff members.
Findings: Interpretation and analysis of structured results obtained from the use of data envelopment analysis policy based on 360-degree evaluation can be the basis for improving human resources and continuing periodic evaluation to continuously improve employee performance in the organization.
Originality/Value: The present study can help their evaluations by using various indicators comprehensively as well as 360-degree approach and considering the external and internal challenges of the organization.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 360-degree evaluation
  • Employee performance evaluation
  • Goal Programming
  • Data Envelopment Analysis
  • preferential voting
Adibzadeh, M., Najafbagy, R., Mousakhani, M., Daneshfard, C., & Alemtabriz, A. (2017). Human resources performance appraisal using quality indicators (study at the headquarters of the national organization for civil registration). Public policy in administration, 8, 47-64. (In Persian). URL: http://ijpa.srbiau.ac.ir/article_12804.html?lang=en
Alimohammadpour, A., Taghipour, E., & Nemati, M. (2017). Identifying and ranking factors affecting the job motivation of officers in long term sailing using AHP technique. Journal of research on management of teaching in marine sciences, 4(2), 71-87.  (In Persian). URL: http://rmt.iranjournals.ir/article_27428.html?lang=en
Allen, M. W., Armstrong, D. J., Reid, M. F., & Riemenschneider, C. K. (2008). Factors impacting the perceived organizational support of IT employees. Information & management45(8), 556-563.
Almost, J. (2010). Antecedents and consequences of intragroup conflict among nurses in acute care settings (Doctoral Dissertation of Nursing, University of Toronto). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228984891_Antecedents_and_ consequences_of_intragroup_conflict_among_nurses_in_acute_care_settings
Aref, H., Seyedjavadin, S., Pour Ezzat, A., & Mohammad Elyasi, G. (2019). Performance appraisal: The Arena for confrontation of meanings. Quarterly journal of public organzations management, 7(3), 29-44. (In Persian). URL: http://ipom.journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_5884.html?lang=en
Asadi, I., Zakeri, M., Zeraati, M., & Vosoughi Nairi., A. (2015). Performance evaluation model of Shahid Sattari university of aeronautical sciences and technology based on balanced scorecard technique. Journal of human resource management, 4(4), 151-177. (In Persian). URL: http://www.jhrs.ir/article_65733.html
Bies, R.J. (2001) International (In)justice: The Sacred and the Profane. In: Greenberg, J. and Cropanzano, R., Eds., Advances in Organization Justice, Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, 89-118.
Burnard, P., Haji, H. T. B. P. D., Rahim, A., Hayes, D., & Edwards, D. (2007). A descriptive study of Bruneian student nurses’ perceptions of stress. Nurse education today27(7), 808-818.
Chandler, C. I., Chonya, S., Mtei, F., Reyburn, H., & Whitty, C. J. (2009). Motivation, money and respect: a mixed-method study of Tanzanian non-physician clinicians. Social science & medicine68(11), 2078-2088.‏
Chang, T. Y., & Chang, Y. L. (2007). Relationship between role stress and job performance in salespeople employed by travel agents in Taiwan. International journal of stress management14(2), 211-223.
Chen, P. C., & Ho, C. Y. (2003). US university academy reputation ranking indicators research: example of US news and world report. Education research monthly magazine116, 77-96.
Cho, J., & Darren, C. T. (2011). Organizational identification and perceived organizational support as mediators of the procedural justice-citizenship behavior relationship: across-cultural constructive replication. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 5, 631-653.
Cook, W. D., & Kress, M. (1990). A data envelopment model for aggregating preference rankings. Management science, 36(11), 1302-1310.
Das, B., & Garcia-Diaz, A. (2001). Factor selection guidelines for job evaluation: a computerized statistical procedure. Computers & industrial engineering40(3), 259-272.
Divandari, A., Nazari, M, Seyedjavadin., S. R., & Haji Karimi., A. A. (2015). Investigating the effect of compensation on individual performance: a study on the mediating role of internal motivation and the moderating role of self-efficacy and reward expectancy. Journal of business management, 1(3), 673-694. (In Persian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=667224
Doaei, H., & Alizadeh, M. (2010). The effect of evaluating growth performance on work performance. Journal of transformation management, 2(3), 90-108. (In Persian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?ID=192704
Dunnette, M. D. (1976). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally College Pub. https://www.worldcat.org/title/handbook-of-industrial-and-organizational-psychology/oclc/2046801
Ebrahimnejad, A., & Bagherzadeh, M. R. (2016). Data envelopment analysis approach for discriminating efficient candidates in voting systems by considering the priority of voters. Hacettepe journal of mathematics and statistics45(1), 165-180.
Eghbali, S., Hamedi, M., & Hashemi, F. (2017). The effects of the physical features of the work environment on employees’ performance. Journal of research in human resources management, 9(2), 69-92. (In Persian). URL: https://hrmj.ihu.ac.ir/article_27340.html
FatollahZade, R., Ghoorchiyan, N., Bagheri, M., & jafari, P. (1970). Beyond the factors affecting job motivation: in search of the motivation pattern of faculty members. Educational administration research, 11(42), 53-66. (In Persian). URL: https://www.virascience.com/thesis/657009/
Feyz, D., Kahyari Haghighat, A., Moradi, M., & Rahimi, E. (2014) The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: a mediating effect of citizenship behavior. Journal of human resource management, 4(4), 67-88. (In Persian). URL: http://www.jhrs.ir/article_65728.html
Fleishman, E. A. (1979). Evaluating physical abilities required by jobs. Personnel administrator24(6), 82-90.
Franco, L. M., Bennett, S., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework. Social science & medicine54(8), 1255-1266.
Gerhart, B., Rynes, S. L., & Rynes, S. (2003). Compensation: Theory, evidence, and strategic implications. Sage.
Greenberg, J. (1990). Organizational justice: yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Journal of management16(2), 399-432.
Hackman, J. R., & Oldham G. R.) 1976). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organization behavior human performance, 16(2), 250-279.
Hajizadeh Maymandi, M., & Bonyad, L. (2019).  Factors affecting occupational safety employee organizations (meta-analysis of available research). Social development, 14(2), 33-60. (In Persian). URL: https://qjsd.scu.ac.ir/article_15399.html?lang=en
Heinzerling, D., Schiavon, S., Webster, T., & Arens, E. (2013). Indoor environmental quality assessment models: a literature review and a proposed weighting and classification scheme. Building and environment, 70, 210-222.‏
Hejazi, R., Rahmani, A., & Mosallanejad., A. (2016). The determination of measures of balanced scorecard model in university with emphasis on growth and learning perspective (case study: Alzahra university). Organizational culture management, 14(4), 961-980. (In Persian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/en/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=607814
Iyer, R., & Johlke, M. C. (2015). The role of external customer mind-set among service employees. Journal of services marketing, 29(1), 38–48.
Jafari Eskandari, M., & Keshvari, M. (2015). The application of fusion model of dynamic balanced scored card and data development analysis in order to evaluate the performance of broadcasting centers. Quarterly journal of public organizations management, 3(4), 61-73. (In Persian). URL: http://journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_2344.html
Kameli, M. J., Darabi, R., Jafari, M., & Namjokarmi, M. (2011). The role of payroll management system on the efficiency of NAJA Employees. Development quarterly, 6(2), 41-69. (In Persian). URL: http://pdf.gen2017.ir/pdf/791932/html
Karimi, A., Shahin, A., & Shaemi Barzoki, A. (2018). Proposing a competency-oriented performance assessment system through succession planning. Quarterly journal of public organizations management, 6(2), 95-108. (In Persian). URL: http://ipom.journals.pnu.ac.ir/article_4577.html.
Kariuki, A., Kiambati, K. (2017). Empowerment, organizational commitment, organization citizenship behavior and firm performance. Management studies, 5(4), 290-300.
Keshtidar, M. (2002). A study of the relationship between control source and stress and comparison between managers, professors and sports departments and non-sports department (PhD Thesis, University of Tehran). Retrieved from https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=154009
Khalaveh E., & Mehdad., A. (2016). Predicting of perceived job security & organizational trust through ethical leadership & adherence to psychological contract. Ethics in science and technology, 10(4) 37-44.
Lang, J., Thomas, J. L., Bliese, P. D., & Adler, A. B. (2007). Job demands and job performance: the mediating effect of psychological and physical strain and the moderating effect of role clarity. Journal of occupational health psychology12(2), 116-126.
Lee, Y., & Shin, S. (2010). Job stress evaluation using responsesurface data mining. International journal of industrial ergonomics, 40, 379-385.
Lotfi, M., & Nasabi, N. (2015). Effect of feedback of 360-degree evaluation results on managers’ performance in Shiraz university of medical sciences in 2012 and 2014. Journal of development & evolution management, 21, 35-42. (In Persian). URL: http://www.jdem.ir/article_467.html
MusaKhani, M., Alvani, S. M., Mirzaei, M., & Mohammadi, S. (2012). A study of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and employee performance. Journal of industrial strategic management, 9(25), 75-90. (In Persian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=164110
Nikkhah Farkhani, Z., Khorakian, A., Jahangir, M., & Mohammadi Shahroudi, H. (2018). Explaining the components of ethical behavior in employees & managers of the city. Ethics in science and technology, 12(4), 146-156. (In Persian). URL: http://ethicsjournal.ir/article-1-889-fa.html
Ozgur, O., & Murat, K. A. (2013). Does risk matter in CEO compensation contracting? evidence from US restaurant industry original research article. International journal of hospitality management, 34(41), 372-383.
Palish, L. E., Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. (1995). Managing in the international context: testing cultural generality of sources of commitment to multinational enterprises. J Manage, 21(4), 671-690.
Pooya A., & Norouzi M. (2017). Typology of human resources performance evaluation indices (case study: Fars province Gas company). Human resource management in oil industry, 8(31), 177-205. (In Persian). URL: http://iieshrm.ir/article-1-152-en.html
Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: a review of the literature. Journal of applied psychology, 87(4), 698–714.
Seyed Javadin, S. R. (2005). Organizational behavior management. Tehran, Negah Danesh. (In Persian).
Shahabi Nejad, M., Ghiasi, A., Ghaffari, M., Barkhordar, A., & Soltani Pourshikh, S. (2017). Identify occupational hazards of each of the occupational groups in a military hospital. NPWJM, 5(15), 31-37. (In Persian). URL: https://www.sid.ir/fa/journal/ViewPaper.aspx?id=345034
Soltanifar, M. (2020). A new voting model for groups with members of unequal power and proficiency. International journal of industrial mathematics, 12(2), 121-134.
Vahedi, M., & Sadeghi, P. (2019). Monitoring the role of organizational citizenship behavior on the performance of staff and professors of Payame Noor university. Quarterly journal of public organizations management, 7(1), 51-58. (In Persian). URL: http://ipom.journals.pnu.ac.ir/m/article_6366.html?lang=en
Vischer, J. C. (2008). Towards an environmental psychology of workspace: how people are affected by environments for work. Architectural science review, 51(2), 97-108.
Whiting, H. J., Kline, T. J. B., & Sulsky, L. M. (2008). The performance appraisal congruency scale: an assessment of person-environment fit. international journal of productivity and performance management, 57(3), 223-236.
Woodman, R. W., Sawyer, J. E., & Griffin, R. W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of management review, 18, 293-321.
Wua, C. M., & Chenb, T. J. (2018). Collective psychological capital: Linking shared leadership, organizational commitment, and creativity. International journal of hospitality management, 74, 75–84.
Zinta, S. B., Wayne, A. H. (2008). Perceived organizational support and performance relationships across levels of organizational cynicism. Journal of managerial psychology, 23(1), 54-72.